Fauna

At present only the vertebrate species of the reserve are studied.

Siberian salamander

The steppe group of sections

Amphibians

Amphibians are represented by 4 species; the most numerous species are moor frog (Rana terrestris) and Siberian wood frog (Rana cruenta). Siberian salamander (Hynobius keyserlingi) is listed in the Red Book of the Republic of Khakasia.

Reptiles

Common European adder

There are 5 species of reptiles on the reserve’s territory, among them common lizard (Lacerta vivipara), sand lizard (Lacerta agilis) and common European adder (Vipera berus) are typical. The Pallas’ coluber (Elaphe dione) and gloydius halys (Agkistrodon halys) are considered as  rare species.

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Cranes

Birds

During the research 294 bird species have been registered; they refer to 18 orders, that is 79% of 315 bird species in the Minusinsk Hollow (gaviiformes -1, podicipediformes – 5, copepods – 1, ciconiiformes – 4, phoeriicopteri – 1, anseriformes – 29, birds of prey – 26, galliformes– 5, gruiformes – 10, charadriiformes – 50, columbiformes – 5, cuculiformes – 1, strigiformes – 8, caprimulgiformes – 1, apodiformes – 2, upupiformes – 1, piciformes – 6, passeriformes – 88). 30 bird species are listed in the Red Book of the Russian Federation, 62 species are listed in the Red Book of the Republic of Khakasia, 21 species are very rare for Europe and Asia.

Mammals

There are 52 mammal species in steppe areas, 8 of them are listed in the Red Book of the Republic of Khakassia.

Roe deer

Vertebrates of the main types of landforms

There are four main eco-faunistic complexes in seven steppe areas of the reserve. On plains and glacises, which are mainly occupied with gramineous steppes and upland meadows, the species composition of the terrestrial vertebrates is very poor. The number of common lizards (Lacerta vivipara), sand lizards (Lacerta agilis), adders (Vipera berus) and gloydius halyses (Agkistrodon halys) is not high. There have been registered over 50 bird species. The birds-visitors, who use this habitat as the forage reserve (swallows, swifts, starlings, crows), constitute the greater part of the whole birds population. There are about 20 species of nesting birds; however there are not so many background species (like skylark (Alauda arvensis), horned lark (Eremophila alpestris), red-capped lark (Galandrella cinerea), northern wheatear (Oenanthe oenanthe), isabelline wheatear (Oenanthe isabellina), Richard’s pipit (Anthus richardi) and tawny pipit (Anthus campestris)). The common quail (Coturnix coturnix) and Daurian partridge (Perdix daurica) have become common inhabitants of feather-grass and gramineous steppes, their number has increased especially fast since making this territory protected. European stonechat (Saxicola torquata), rarely booted warbler (Hippolais caligala) nest in the areas with tough-caulescent plants. The short-eared owl (Asio flammeus), demoiselle crane (Anthropoides virgo), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), pintail (Anas acuta), rarely gadwall (Anas strepera) settle near water bodies. Roody (Tadorna ferruginea) and common shelducks (Tadorna tadorna) nest in fox burrows.

Northern lapwing's nestling

The solonetzic steppe attracts northern lapwing (Vanellus vanellus), yellow wagtail (Motacilla flava); the Pallas’s sandgrouse (Syrrhaptes paradoxus) comes to the deserted steppes and nests there. Meadow bunting (Emberiza cioides) and horned lark (Eremophila alpestris) dominate there in winter. Snow bunting (Plectrophenas nivalis) is rare; rough-legged buzzard (Buteo lagopus) and snowy owl (Nyctea scandiaca) can be found even rarer than snow bunting . Snowy owls (Nyctea scandiaca) are quite usual in the “Lake Bele” section in some years (about 50 specimens per 10 kilometers). Speaking about small mammals, a lot of steppe lemmings (Lagurus lagurus), narrow-headed voles (Microtus gregalis) are there; the common animals are the striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius), long-tailed ground squirrel (Citellus undulatus) and Djungarian hamster (Phodopus sungorus). The usual inhabitants are European hare (Lepus europaeus) and red fox (Vulpes vulpes), steppe polecat (Mustela enersmani) is rare to find and European badger (Meles meles) is even more rare. Siberian roe deer (Capreolus pygargus) and gray wolf (Canis lupus) feed there, especially in winter.

Red fox

Steep and hilly slopes, areas of rugged country and low-mountain ones are characterized by rock barings and rocky screes. Quite large number of reptiles can be found in these peculiar conditions; the number of Pallas’ colubers (Elaphe dione) and gloydius halyses (Agkistrodon halys) increases. More than 30 bird specimens can be registered there during the nesting season. The most various species composition and high density of birds is in stone steppes with rocks, steppe bushes and isolated larches. The northern wheatear (Oenanthe oenanthe), horned lark (Eremophila alpestris), meadow bunting (Emberiza cioides), skylark (Alauda arvensis), isabelline wheatear (Oenanthe isabellina) and Daurian partridge (Perdix daurica) are typical specimens for this territory. Eurasian tree sparrow (Passer montanus), fork-tailed swift (Apus pacificus), sometimes – common swift (Apus apus) build their nests in rock niches. Pied wheatear (Oenanthe pleschanka), common (Falco tinnunculus) and lesser kestrels (Falco naumanni) (which build its nest in rock niches), jackdaw (Corvus monedula), hill pigeon (Columba rupestris), red-billed chough (Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax) are the common animal species there. The nests of peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), ruddy shelduck (Tadorna ferruginea), Eurasian eagle-owl (Bubo bubo), sometimes saker falcon (Falco cherrug) can also be found there. During nesting season ortolan (Emberiza hortulana) and pine bunting (Emberiza leucocephala) come to the territories with larch light forest. Common whitethroat (Sylvia communis), dusky warbler (Phylloscopus fuscatus), linnet (Acanthis cannabina) and shrike live in brushwoods. Mammals of these territories are represented by the same animal species as in plain ones. The silver mountain vole (Alticola argentatus) can rarely be found there. In rock niches chiropterans pond (Myotis dasycneme), daubenton’s (Myotis daubentoni) and whiskered bats (Myotis mystacinus), brown long-eared bat (Plecotus auritus), northern bat (Eptesicus nissoni), parti-coloured bat (Vespertilio murinus) are usual.

Horned lark

Shrubbery complex occupies almost 14% of the whole territory. It is mostly widespread in “Podzaploty”, “Oglahty” and “Hol–Bogaz” sections. Reptiles are represented by lizard and viper, and only in steppe shrubs Pallas’ coluber (Elaphe dione) can also be found. Bird species composition is very abundant, but there are only 80 nesting birds. Booted warbler (Hippolais caligala), European stonechat (Saxicola torquata), meadow bunting (Emberiza cioides) inhabit the steppe brushwoods. Common rosefinch (Carpodacus erythrinus), European magpie (Pica pica), linnet (Acanthis cannabina), common whitethroat (Sylvia communis) and dusky warbler (Phylloscopus fuscatus) are common bird species there, sometimes there can be found shrike, lesser whitethroat (Sylvia curruca) and garden warbler (Sylvia borin), ortolan bunting (Emberiza hortulana), common chiffchaff (Phylloscopus collybita). Common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus), that places its eggs furtively to the nests of European stonechat (Saxicola torquata), sometimes even in steppe, far from the forest where it lives.

Common cuckoo

In small outlier forests the bird species composition is the same, but the number of nesting crows, and also common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) and Eurasian hobby (Falco subbuteo) that occupies the crow’s nests, is higher. In field woodlands, which areas is more than one hectare, such species as tree pipit (Anthus trivialis), chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs), golden oriole (Oriolus oriolus), common redstart (Phoenicurus phoenicurus), Siberian rubythroat (Luscinia callioppi), fieldfare (Turdus pilaris), redwing (Turdus iliacus), black grouse (Lyrurus tetrix), long-eared owl (Asio otus) live. In large woodlands (mainly birch and larch ones) there are strictly forest bird species like Eurasian nuthatch (Sitta europaea), coal tit (Parus ater), gray’s grasshopper-warbler (Locustella fasciolata), long-tailed tit (Aeguthalos caudatus), great spotted (Dendrocopos major) and white-backed (Dendrocopos leucotos) woodpeckers, hazel grouse (Tetrastes bonasia), wood grouse (Tetrao urogallus), Eurasian scops owl (Otus scops), Eurasian pygmy owl (Glaucidium passerinum), Ural owl (Strix uralensis), swinhoe’s snipe (Gallinago megala).

Ground squirrels

Out of birds of prey the common species are black kite (Milvus migrans), rarer – Japanese sparrowhawk (Accipiter gularis) and northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), and even rarer are eastern imperial eagle (Aquila heliaca) and saker falcon (Falco cherrug). Out of mammals the mouse-like rodent are the most common species. Besides common vole (Microtus arvalis) and striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius) there are field vole (Microtus agrestis), tundra vole (Microtus oeconomus), northern red-backed vole (Clethriobomys rutilus) and grey red-backed vole (Clethriobomys rufocanus), large Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus), southern birch mouse (Sicista subtilis) and northern birch mouse (Sicista betulina).

Altai mole (Talpa altaica) can be found in the forest edges and in clearings, and shrews usually inhabit the afforestations – there are such shrew species as common shrew (Sorex araneus) and sorex arcticus (Sorex arcticus). The number of stoats (Mustela erminea), least weasels (Mustela nivalis), European badgers (Meles meles), mountain hares (Lepus timidus), Siberian chipmunks (Eutamias sibiricus), Siberian weasel s(Mustela Sibirica) increases. Siberian roe deer (Capreolus pygargus) and 2 or 3 litters of grey wolves (Canis lupus) can also be found there. Squirrel is recorded on the “Podzaploty” and “Hol-Bogaz” sections in the migration period.

Black-tailed godwit

Meadow marsh complex is typical for the “Lake Itkul”, “Podzaploty”, “LakeShira” and “Kamyzyaksky steppe” sections. Amphibians are represented by 3 species, among which moor frog (Rana terrestris) is the most common, rarer can be found Siberian wood frog and common toad. The composition of reptile species is quite poor. The common European adder can be found there. Bird species composition is much more manifold. There are numerous bird species such as yellow wagtail (Motacilla flava), skylark (Alauda arvensis) in meadows, sedge warbler (Acrocephalus schoenobaenus) in brushwoods. Blyth’s reed warbler (Acrocephalus dumetorum), European stonechat (Saxicola torquata), bluethroat (Luscinia svecica), lanceolated warbler (Locustella lanceolata), paddyfield warbler (Acrocephalus agricola), common snipe (Gallinago gallinago), great snipe (Gallinago media), northern lapwing (Vanellus vanellus), common redshank (Tringa totanus), corn crake (Crex crex) are also common species; yellow wagtail (Motacilla flava), common rosefinch (Carpodacus erythrinus), Richard’s pipit (Anthus richardi), Eurasian curlew (Numenius arquata), demoiselle crane (Anthropoides virgo), common quail (Coturnix coturnix), spotted crake (Porzana porzana) can rarer be found there. Northern harrier (Circus cyaneus) and warsh harrier (Circus aeroginosus) can be found more often than Montagu’s harrier (Circus pygargus) and pallid harrier (Circus macrourus) ones. All types of dabbling ducks nest there. On spacious marshes in the “Podzaploty” section build their nests 2 couples of common cranes (Grus grus), 3 or 4 couples of Eurasian bittern (Botaurus stellaris), hooded crane (Grus monacha) was met at the time of passage. In spring during the passage some couples of ruffs (Philomachus pugnax) and other sandpipers have a stay there. There are not so many mammal species in this territory. The number of rodents is higher than the number of other animals, among them the narrow-headed vole (Microtus gregalis) and European water vole (Arvicola terrestris) are the most numerous. The population of Siberian roe deer inhabits the “Podzaploty” section under the protection of brushwoods and reeds all the year round. In winter there can be met European hare (Lepus europaeus) and red fox (Vulpes vulpes).

Eurasian curlew

Water reservoirs and their strands occupy 12% of the whole territory of the reserve. Besides such large lakes as Itkul, Shira, Bele and Ulug-Kol, there are some small lakes in the reserve’s sections. The riversides and lakesides are mostly swamped and occupied by sedge and reed thickets. Aquatic vegetation is well-developed. The lakesides of large lakes are generally sandy or muddy and only the shallow lake bays are overgrown with reed.

Water reservoirs play a very important role not only in nesting a large number of water and semi-aquatic birds, but they are also the resting places of birds during the period of mass migration. The swallowstraitofLakeBele andLakeUlug-Kolare the constituent part of Central Asian Flyway and serve as resting and concentration places of birds of passage.

Pied avocet

After the nesting period about 50-80 bringing forth of ruddy shelduck and 20-30 of common shelduck are counted there; about 80-100 couples of pied avocet (it is about 50% of pied avocet population nesting in the Middle Siberia) and about 5 couples of demoiselle crane nest there; and also there can be found a lot of common pochards (Aythya ferina), pintails (Anas acuta), gadwalls (Anas strepera), garganeys (Anas querquedula), northern shovelers (Anas clypeata), common redshanks (Tringa totanus), little ringed plovers (Charadris dubius) and Kentish plovers (Charadris alexandinus), Eurasian curlews (Numenius arquata) and so forth.

In august about 5-8 thousands of water and semi-aquatic birds gather near the lake. 3-4 thousands of ruddy shelducks (Tadorna ferruginea), 2-3 thousands of common pochards (Aythya ferina), 1-2 thousands of ducks, 0,3-0,6 thousands of common shelducks (Tadorna tadorna), 0,4-0,5 thousands of pied avocets (Recurvirostra avosetta), 0,3-0,4 thousands of common gulls (Larus canus) are considered as the mass birds.

Common shelduck

During the spring and autumn migration periods the lake becomes a resting place for thousands of ducks, geese, swans and especially sandpipers. 3-3,5 thousands of tundra swans (Cygnus bewickii), about 1 thousand of whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus), greylag goose (Anser anser), bean goose (Anser fabalis), greater white-fronted goose (Anser ilbifrons), lesser white-fronted goose (Anser erythropus) (one-time aggregations of about 1 or 2 thousands of species) tringas of different types (in passages peaks about 8-11 thousands) make their prolonged stops at the lake. Out of the rare species swan goose (Cygnopsis cygnoides), white-headed duck (Oxyura leucocephala), black-tailed godwit (Limosa limosa) and pin-tailed snipe (Gallinago stenura), Pallas’s sandgrouse (Syrrhaptes paradoxus), common crane (Grus grus); even rarer – black stork (Ciconia nigra) and Eurasian spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia) have been recorded there. According to the data obtained by the Krasnoyarsk Ecology Center about 28% of Bewick’s swan (Cygnus bewickii) of the total number of the western subspecies and about 15% of the total number of all the species of this kind pass through Lake Ulug-Kol.

White-headed duck

Near Lake Bele the following bird species build their nests: about 1-2 couples of whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus) (not every year), 15-20 couples of white-winged scoters (Melanitta deglandi), 20-30 couples of ruddy shelducks (Tadorna ferruginea), 5-10 couples of common shelducks (Tadorna tadorna), 10-15 couples of Caspian gulls (Larus cachinnans), Pallas’s gull (Larus ichthyaetus) (not every year), 10-15 couples of common gulls (Larus canus), 2-5 couples of demoiselle cranes (Anthropoides virgo), different types of common (Falco tinnunculus) and lesser kestrels (Falco naumanni), Eurasian eagle-owl (Bubo bubo) and other birds. In summer there can be found about 100-200 species of non-propagative ruddy shelducks (Tadorna ferruginea), common shelducks (Tadorna tadorna), about 500 of ducks, about 10-15 species of demoiselle cranes (Anthropoides virgo), different types of sandpipers; in some years great egret (Egretta alba), greater flamingo (Phoenicopterus roseus), white-headed duck (Oxyura leucocephala) can be met as migratory bird species. In August and September about 4-5 thousands of ruddy shelducks (Tadorna ferruginea), about 50-120 species of demoiselle cranes (Anthropoides virgo) are formed there before flying away. Different types of ducks, sandpipers, geese (mainly bean goose (Anser fabalis) and greylag goose (Anser anser), rarer greater white-fronted goose (Anser ilbifrons), lesser white-fronted goose (Anser erythropus), bean goose (Anser fabalis) and even more rarer swan goose (Cygnopsis cygnoides), Red-breasted Goose (Rufibrenta ruficollis)), whooper swan (Cygnus cygnus) and Bewick’s swan (Cygnus bewickii) stay there during the migration period. About 0,5-1 thousand species of common crane (Grus grus) stays there for a short period of time during the autumn passage. Thereby, Lake Ulug-Kol and the swallow strait of Lake Bele are the most important Key Ornithological Territories of the Russian Federation and Asia.

Mooses

The mountain taiga group of sections

Amphibians

Siberian wood frog (Rana cruenta), common toad (Bufo bufo) and Siberian salamander (Hynobius keyserlingi) can be found in this group of sections.

Reptiles

Сommon (Lacerta vivipara) and sand lizard (Lacerta agilis), common European adder (Vipera berus) are typical reptile species of this territory.

Birds

139 bird species has been recorded on the territories of mountain taiga group of sections, among them 27 species are settled and semi-settled birds, 89 – migrating and nesting ones, 6 – nesting and wintering from time to time, 6 – passing by ones and 11 birds species were met in summer, but their nature of staying is obscure.

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Partridges

30 bird species are listed in the Red Book of the Republic of Khakasia, among them 18 species are listed in the Red Book of the Russian Federation, 7 species are very rare for Europe and Asia. The distribution of birds on the reserve’s territory is uneven. The large amount of birds can be found in light forest, notably in mountain forest meadow complex (89 species). There are 77 bird species in dark coniferous taiga, 33 bird species – in mountain tundra, subalpine and alpine meadows. 32 species of birds inhabit riversides and mountain lakes.

Lynx

Mammals

There are 50 mammal species in the mountain taiga areas: 7 insectivorous species, 8 cheiropterous animals, 3 duplicidentates, 13 gnawing animals, 13 predators and 6 paridigitate mammals. Sable (Martes zibellina), American mink (Mustela vison), Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), brown bear (Ursus arctos), European badger (Meles meles), Siberian roe deer (Capreolus pygargus), red deer (Cervus elaphus), moose (Alces alces) and Siberian musk deer (Moschus moschiferus) are considered as valuable game animals inhabiting this territory. 11 animal species are listed in the Red Book of the Republic of Khakasia, 2 of them are listed in the Red Book of the Russian Federation.

The inhabitants of mountain taiga, mountain forest meadow and mountain tundra territories take the main place in the fauna composition of vertebrates. A small part of territories belongs to water and rock complexes. Three main landscape subdivisions reflecting vertical zonality of the territory are described below.

Caucasian great rosefinch

The mid-mountain dark coniferous taiga includes such types of forests as taiga, subalpine cedar, fir, fir and cedar, dark coniferous and larch, dark coniferous and deciduous, birch, flood mixed and burnt-out forests. Common lizard (Lacerta vivipara) and common European adder (Vipera berus) are typical for these territories. Among birds the following bird species prevail: chickadee, coal tit (Parus ater), spotted nutcracker (Nucifraga caryocatactes), common crossbill (Loxia curvirostra), Eurasian nuthatch (Sitta europaea), greenish warbler (Phylloscopus trochiloides), Pallas’s warbler (Phylloscopus proregulus), common chiffchaff (Phylloscopus collybita) and Radde’s warbler (Phylloscopus schwarzi), red-flanked bluetail (Tarsiger cyanurus). Hazel grouse (Tetrastes bonasia), western capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus), Eurasian woodcock (Scolopax rusticola), black woodpecker (Dryocopus martius), Eurasian three-toed woodpecker (Picoides tridactylus) and great spotted woodpecker (Dendrocopos major), white’s thrush (Zoothera dauma), song thrush (Turdus philomelos), mistle thrush (Turdus viscivorus), common bullfinch (Pyrrhula pyrrhula), Siberian blue robin (Luscinia cyane) and rufous-tailed robin (Luscinia sibilans) are also typical there. In bottomland forests besides the mentioned bird species there can be found black-faced bunting (Emberiza spodocephala), lesser whitethroat (lesser whitethroat), Common Rosefinch (Carpodacus erythrinus), Gray’s grasshopper-warbler (Locustella fasciolata) and lanceolated warbler (Locustella lanceolata), pin-tailed snipe (Gallinago stenura), swinhoe’s snipe (Gallinago megala).

Common chiffchaff

In subalpine cedar forests to the typical bird species can be added the following ones: Mugimaki flycatcher (Ficedula mugimaki), Eversmann’s redstart (Phoenicurus erythronotus), Caucasian great rosefinch (Carpodacus rubicilla), Pallas’s rosefinch (Carpodacus roseus), Siberian tit (Parus cinctus), yellow-browed warbler (Phylloscopus inornatus), eyebrowed thrush (Turdus obscurus).

Grey wagtail (Motacilla cinerea), common sandpiper (Actitis hypoleucos), green sandpiper (Tringa ochropus), common merganser (Mergus merganser) can be found along rivers in taiga zone. A food supply of fork-tailed (Apus pacificus) and common swifts (Apus apus) is situated also there on riverside rocks. A few of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), common goldeneye (Bucephala clangula), common greenshank (Tringa nebularia) can also be met. Pandion Praliaetus and black stork (Ciconia nigra), listed in the Red Book, nest there.

Sedge warbler

In taiga and subalpine cedar forests in the upper reaches there are peculiar places – so-called “shrubby marshes”. They represent woodless, relatively smoothened areas occupied by thick and quite high (about1.5 m) brushwoods, among which some isolated stunted spruces, cedars and firs can be found. There are also sedge hummocky marshes and grassy plots that can be found in forests. A lot of dusky warbler (Phylloscopus fuscatus), grey wagtail (Motacilla cinerea), bluethroat (Luscinia svecica), yellow-browed warbler (Phylloscopus inornatus), Siberian rubythroat (Luscinia callioppi), sedge warbler (Acrocephalus schoenobaenus), lanceolated warbler (Locustella lanceolata) and Pallas’s grasshopper-warbler (Locustella certhiola) inhabit these territories. Radde’s warbler (Phylloscopus schwarzi), common chiffchaff (Phylloscopus collybita), Common Rosefinch (Carpodacus erythrinus), lesser whitethroat (Sylvia curruca),Blyth’s reed warbler (Acrocephalus dumetorum) are typical there. A small amount of European stonechats (Saxicola torquata), yellow-breasted buntings (Emberiza aureola), yellow wagtails (Motacilla flava) were also recorded there.

Least weasel

The common shrew (Sorex araneus), arctic shrew (Sorex arcticus), taiga shrew (Sorex isodon), Laxmann’s shrew (Sorex caecutiens), Eurasian pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus), Eurasian least shrew (Sorex minitissimus), northern red-backed vole (Clethriobomys rutilus), grey red-backed vole (Clethriobomys rufocanus), Alpine pika (Ochotona alpina), Siberian chipmunk (Eutaminus sibiricus), red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris), sable (Martes zibellina) are typical animal species among mammals of mountain dark coniferous taiga. Comparatively rare animals are Siberian weasel (Mustela Sibirica), stoat (Mustela erminea), least weasel (Mustela nivalis), Siberian flying squirrel (Pteromis volans). Very rare mammals are such bats as pond bat (Myotis dasycneme), daubenton’s bat (Myotis daubentoni), whiskered (Myotis mystacinus), Brandt’s (Myotis brandti), brown long-eared (Plecotus auritus), parti-coloured (Vespertilio murinus), greater tube-nosed (Murina leucogaster) and northern one (Eptesicus nissoni). Among large animals brown bear (Ursus arctos), wolverine (Gulo gulo), Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), Siberian musk deer (Moschus moschiferus), red deer (Cervus elaphus) are typical. Moose, Siberian roe deer and stoat (Mustela erminea) can rarely be found. Small groups of reindeers (Rangifer tarandus valentinae) can sometimes be found in the mountains along the southern boundary. In flood plains the mountain hare (Lepus timidus) and American mink (Mustela vison) are quite typical, European otter (Lutra lutra) can rarer be found. An interesting fact is (taking into account that wolf has been met there very rarely until 1980) that wolf has started to enter to the mountain taiga near the upper reaches. Presently it is a common animal even in winter.

The mountain forest meadow landscape is represented by cedars and firs. Common lizard and common European adder are the typical reptiles for this territory, they inhabit mainly the slope of southern exposition.

Reindeer

Among birds the yellow-browed warbler (Phylloscopus inornatus), common rosefinch (Carpodacus erythrinus), Siberian rubythroat (Luscinia callioppi), olive-backed pipit (Anthus hodysoni), willow tit (Parus montanus), common chiffchaff (Phylloscopus collybita) dominate other bird species. Dark-throated thrush (Turdus ruficollis) and eyebrowed thrush (Turdus obscurus), spotted nutcracker (Nucifraga caryocatactes), red-flanked bluetail (Tarsiger cyanurus), Caucasian great rosefinch (Carpodacus rubicilla), Pallas’s rosefinch (Carpodacus roseus) and common rosefinch (Carpodacus erythrinus), water pipit (Anthus spinoletta) and tree pipit (Anthus trivialis), lesser whitethroat (Sylvia curruca), Siberian rubythroat (Luscinia callioppi) are typical there.

The mammal species composition is changeable, except the presence in it such animal species as moles, shrews and voles. The large mammals, which are brown bear (Ursus arctos), red deer (Cervus elaphus), Siberian roe deer (Capreolus pygargus) concentrate there in late spring and summer, when they can eat the lush grass growing there.

American mink

The high mountain tundras include various biotopes. The largest bird species composition and the number of them is recorded in brushwood (yernik) tundra. The small amounts of birds can be found in lichen and moss tundras. Water pipit (Anthus spinoletta), yellow-browed warbler (Phylloscopus inornatus), Pallas’ reed bunting (Emberiza pallasi), rock ptarmigan (Lagopus munus) and willow ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus), olive-backed pipit (Anthus hodysoni), brown accentor (Prunella fulvescens), altai accentor (Prunella himalayana), alpine accentor (Prunella collaris), brambling (Fringilla montifringilla) are the typical representatives11 of these territories. The unusual animal for high mountains is large-eared vole (Alticola maerotus). However almost all the types mentioned as inhabitants of bare mountains can penetrate into the biotopes of high mountains, come to tundras for feeding and hiding from blood-sucking insects.

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